Securing PHP-FPM with AppArmor

PHP-FPM is an ideal candidate to secure with AppArmor. Not only can the security of a web server be endangered by security bugs in PHP itself, it can also be affected by security holes in PHP applications. By confining PHP-FPM with AppArmor, we can limit abuse when a security hole is exploited, by preventing PHP-FPM for example from reading arbitrary files on your system or executing random binaries, which may contain a Linux backdoor or crypto-miner malware.


First it is important that you run different PHP web applications as different users by running them in a different pool. The different pools can then be confined with their own separate AppArmor subprofile or hat, so that we can protect the different PHP applications from each other.

Then on Debian 12 Bookworm, I recommend that you upgrade to the AppArmor packages from my own repository, because they contain some important bug fixes, notably aa-logprof and aa-genprof supporting exec events in hats. Set up the bookworm-frehi repository in apt and upgrade AppArmor to the version available in this repository:

# apt install -t bookworm-frehi apparmor

Now we are ready to create our AppArmor profile for PHP-FPM. Debian already ships a basic profile /etc/apparmor.d/php-fpm as part of the package apparmor-profiles. However aa-logprof and aa-genprof will want to write everything in one single file, while the /etc/apparmor.d/php-fpm heavily relies on including other files and also the comments in that file will be lost. For that reason I choose to create my own profile from scratch with aa-genprof. So first I disable the php-fpm profile and remove it:

# aa-disable php-fpm
# rm /etc/apparmor.d/disable/php-fpm
# rmdir /etc/apparmor.d/php-fpm.d/

Generating a profile for /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2

I start aa-genprof:

# aa-genprof /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2

In another shell, I stop PHP-FPM:

# systemctl stop php8.2-fpm

and now I modify all pools in /etc/php/8.2/fpm/pool.d/*.conf and I add the apparmor_hat value to the name of the pool. For example:

# apparmor_hat = myblog

This instructs PHP-FPM to switch to this subprofile or hat for this pool. If every pool uses a different hat, we can isolate the different pools running different web applications from each other.

Now verify with aa-status whether /usr/sbin/php.php-fpm8.2 is in complain mode and if not, put it in complain mode manually with the aa-complain command:

# aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2

Now we start PHP-FPM:

# systemctl start php8.2-fpm

It’s a good idea to immediately press S to scan for the first events. Process them like I showed in my previous AppArmor tutorial. As usual, in case of doubt choose the more fine-grained option instead of broad abstractions.

I will discuss some specific things you will encounter.

You will see that PHP-FPM requests read access to /etc/passwd and /etc/group. It needs this in order to look up the UID and GID of the user and group value you have set in your FPM pools. As we are running our different pools in their own subprofiles, which don’t have access to these files, this is not a security problem: your PHP applications won’t have access to these files if you have properly set apparmor_hat in every pool.

At some point our PHP-FPM process switches to the profile /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//null-/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//myblog. This is because we have set apparmor_hat = myblog in the myblog pool. The null part in the profile name indicates that this profile does not exist yet and so AppArmor uses this as a temporary name. We will have to fix this manually later. Now accept this rule.

Profile:        /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2
Exec Condition: ALL
Target Profile: /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//null-/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//myblog

 [1 - change_profile -> /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//null-/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//myblog,]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

Continue processing all events, and when you are done save the profile and quit aa-genprof.

Check with aa-status in which mode the /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 profile is and switch it back to complain mode if necessary. Otherwise if it’s in enforce mode, your PHP applications will probably not work correctly any more.

We will now edit the file /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2 in a text editor. Find the change_profile rules in that file, and replace them by this line:

change_profile -> /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,

This allows PHP-FPM to switch to all PHP-FPM hats.

In the file, you will also find some signal rules which refer to the temporary null profile. We need to fix these too like this:

  signal send set=kill peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,<br />  signal send set=quit peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,<br />  signal send set=term peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,

Then within the profile /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 flags=(complain) {

create an empty myblog hat in complain mode:

  ^myblog flags=(complain) {

Now reload the AppArmor profile:

# apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2

Restart aa-genprof:

# aa-genprof /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2

and restart PHP-FPM in another shell:

# systemctl restart php8.2-fpm

Now exercise your web applications and process all generated events. Particularly test posting new items on your website and uploading pictures and other files. You will notice that the events triggered by the www pool, are now in the hat myblog, which is shown by aa-genprof as /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2^myblog.

In WordPress I am using the WebP Express plugin, which automatically creates a webp file for every uploaded image by calling the command cwebp.

aa-genprof will show this event:

Profile:  /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2^myblog
Execute:  /usr/bin/dash
Severity: unknown

(I)nherit / (N)amed / (U)nconfined / (X) ix On / (D)eny / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

So the myblog pool tries to launch the dash shell as part of this process. By pressing I you can let it inherit the www profile, so it will have exactly the same permissions and cannot read or modify any files from other web applications running in a different PHP-FPM pool, or other files on the system. I also had to do this for the cwebp executable and a few others which are used by WebP Express. Important is that you never choose unconfined, because then you allow these executables to do anything on your system without any AppArmor restrictions.

When WordPress sends e-mail, it will call sendmail:

[(S)can system log for AppArmor events] / (F)inish
Reading log entries from /var/log/audit/audit.log.
Target profile exists: /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.sendmail

Profile:  /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2^myblog
Execute:  /usr/sbin/sendmail
Severity: unknown

(I)nherit / (P)rofile / (N)amed / (U)nconfined / (X) ix On / (D)eny / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

Sendmail should run in its own profile, so you can choose P here.

Creating a child profile for dash

In our example our PHP-FPM worker calls dash and cwebp to process images. We have chosen to let dash and cwebp inherit all permissions of the worker. While this already is a great security improvement because it will prevent dash from executing random binaries and reading files unrelated to this web application it is still too broad. There is no reason why dash and cwebp should be able to read our PHP files for example and any other files than webp files. So we can improve our security even more by running these commands in a separate child profile.

To do so, I edit /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2 in a text editor, and I remove all these lines from the www hat:

    /usr/bin/cwebp mrix,
    /usr/bin/dash mrix,
    /usr/bin/nice mrix,
    /usr/bin/cwebp mrix,
    /usr/bin/which.debianutils mrix,

and I replace it by this rule which will force dash to run in a child profile named myblogdash:

/usr/bin/dash Px -> /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//myblogdash,

Then in the usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 profile, but outside the myblog hat, I create this empty child profile:

  profile myblogdash flags=(complain) {

reload the profile, restart PHP-FPM and start aa-genprof again:

# /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2
# systemctl restart php8.2-fpm
# aa-genprof /usr/sbin/php8.2-fpm

Now I upload again an image in order to trigger the execution of dash and and I process the generated events with aa-genprof. Finally I end up with this child profile:

  profile myblogdash {
    include <abstractions/base>
    include <abstractions/bash>

    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,

    /usr/bin/cwebp mrix,
    /usr/bin/dash mr,
    /usr/bin/nice mrix,
    /usr/bin/which.debianutils mrix,
    owner /var/www/**.{jpg,jpeg,png} r,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/**.webp w,


As you can see our dash process and all other processes which inherit this profile, including cwepb, now have much more limited permissions and can only read JPEG and PNG files from our website and write WEBP images. I had some events of the sh process reading files like wp-admin/options-general.php, but I have no idea why this process would do that. I chose to deny this, and even when this child profile is in enforce mode, everything appeared to be working OK. Anyway, these files don’t contain anything sensitive, so it would not be a real problem if you accept this.

Write permissions on PHP files

A topic which is worth thinking about: which permissions are you giving your PHP worker process on the PHP files? Obviously PHP-FPM will need read access to these files in order to execute them, but do you also want to give them write access? There is a strong argument not too: it will prevent hackers who manage to exploit your PHP application to write a new PHP file with their own code (such as a PHP backdoor) and then execute it. Or modify your existing PHP files and insert malicious code in them. So confining your PHP process to prevent it from writing PHP files is a huge advantage for security.

However applications like WordPress will try to update themselves and in order to do so, it needs write access to its own files. Also installing new plug-ins via the web interface requires the permissions to write PHP files. Automatic updates is also a big advantage for security. As an alternative to WordPress updating itself automatically, you could easily write a shell script which uses wp-cli to update WordPress and all modules and themes and regularly call this from a cron job or systemd timer.

On my system, I noticed that the wp-supercache module was writing some PHP files. If I understand this correctly, it does this in order to deal with pages which contain dynamic content. So in order not to break this, I need to allow writing PHP files in wp-content/cache/supercache anyway.

You will have to decide for each web application whether you want it to allow writing PHP files. At least run your different PHP applications in different PHP-FPM workers with different AppArmor hats, so that it’s impossible for one PHP applications to affect other PHP applications, but also strongly consider not giving write access to its own PHP files because that would be a huge win security wise.

If you decide to give a web application write access to its own PHP files, I recommend even more setting up Modsecurity with the CoreRuleSet, blocking outgoing network connections by default for that user account with your firewall (such as Foomuuri) and installing Snuffleupagus to further limit the things PHP applications can do on a PHP level.

The usr.sbin.php-fpm8.2 profile

Finally I ended up with the following profile.

abi <abi/3.0>,

include <tunables/global>

/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 {
  include <abstractions/base>

  capability chown,
  capability dac_override,
  capability kill,
  capability net_admin,
  capability setgid,
  capability setuid,

  signal send set=kill peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,
  signal send set=quit peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,
  signal send set=term peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,

  /run/php/*.sock w,
  /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 mr,
  @{PROC}/@{pid}/attr/{apparmor/,}current rw,
  owner /etc/group r,
  owner /etc/host.conf r,
  owner /etc/hosts r,
  owner /etc/nsswitch.conf r,
  owner /etc/passwd r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/fpm/conf.d/ r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php-fpm.conf r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/fpm/pool.d/ r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/fpm/pool.d/*.conf r,
  owner /etc/php/8.2/mods-available/*.ini r,
  owner /etc/resolv.conf r,
  owner /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf r,
  owner /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id r,
  owner /run/php/ w,
  owner /run/systemd/userdb/ r,
  owner /sys/devices/system/node/ r,
  owner /sys/devices/system/node/node0/meminfo r,
  owner /tmp/.ZendSem.* rwk,
  owner /var/log/php8.2-fpm.log w,

  change_profile -> /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//*,

  ^myblog {
    include <abstractions/base>
    include <abstractions/ssl_certs>

    network inet dgram,
    network inet stream,
    network inet6 dgram,
    network inet6 stream,
    network netlink raw,
    network unix stream,

    signal receive set=kill peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2,
    signal receive set=quit peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2,
    signal receive set=term peer=/usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2,

    /etc/gai.conf r,
    /etc/hosts r,
    /tmp/.ZendSem.* k,
    /usr/bin/dash Px -> /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2//blogdash,
    /usr/sbin/postdrop Px,
    /usr/sbin/sendmail Px,
    /var/www/**.php r,
    /var/www/**.{css,js,svg,po} r,
    /var/www/**/ r,
    /var/www/ r,
    /var/www/ r,
    /var/www/*.json r,
    /var/www/ r,
    owner /var/www/* rw,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/**/ rw,
    owner /var/www/**/index.html w,
    owner /var/www/*.tmp rw,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/*.css rw,
    owner /var/www/*.js rw,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/*.jpg rw,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/**.html w,
    owner /var/www/**.html.gz rw,
    owner /var/www/**.php rw,
    owner /var/www/**.tmp rw,
    owner /var/www/**.tmp.gz rw,
    owner /var/www/*/feed/*.php rw,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/**.{po,mo} rw,
    owner /var/www/*.json w,
    owner /var/www/**.json r,
    owner /var/www/*/ rw,
    owner /var/www/**.inc r,
    owner /var/www/*.inc r,
    owner /var/www/*.jpg r,
    owner /var/www/*.png r,
    owner /var/www/ rwk,
    owner /var/www/*.JPEG rw,
    owner /var/www/*.PNG rw,
    owner /var/www/**/ rw,
    owner /var/www/** rw,
    owner /var/www/** rw,
    owner /var/www/**.{jpg,jpeg,png,webp} rw,
    owner /var/www/**/ rw,
    owner /var/www/ rwk,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/ rw,
    owner /var/www/*.JPEG rw,
    owner /var/www/*.PNG rw,
    owner /var/www/ r,
    owner /var/www/*.json rw,
    owner /var/www/ rwk,
    owner /var/www/**.webp rw,


  profile myblogdash {
    include <abstractions/base>
    include <abstractions/bash>

    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,
    deny /var/www/ r,

    /usr/bin/cwebp mrix,
    /usr/bin/dash mr,
    /usr/bin/nice mrix,
    /usr/bin/which.debianutils mrix,
    owner /var/www/**.{jpg,jpeg,png} r,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/ w,
    owner /var/www/**.webp w,


Some advice

Creating an AppAmor profile for more complicated applications like this can be challenge. You will need to retest different things a lot and be prepared to do some hand editing of the profile. Some useful advice that I learnt along the way:

  • Often check /var/log/audit.log yourself to see what is happening. At a certain moment I ended up in a loop where my audit log was constantly being filled because the process tried to switch to a not yet existing profile, so you want to intervene immediately if this happens to prevent the logs from filling up your disk.
  • After making modifications to an AppArmor profile, it’s not a bad idea to restart your process. I am not sure, but I think some problems I encountered were fixed by restarting the process.
  • Stop aa-genprof/aa-logprof when you manually edit a profile and start hem again after the editing and reloading it with apparmor_parser, otherwise these processes won’t be aware of the modification you have made to the profile file.
  • When adding hats or child profiles, revise the permissions of your main profile: maybe some things can be moved to the new hat or child profile and can thus be removed completely from the main profile.
  • Keep your profile long enough in complain mode and only switch to enforce mode after enough time without events (I would say: a couple of days). If you encounter problems with your PHP applications later on, don’t forget to check your audit.log.

Protecting systemd services with AppArmor

In a previous blog post I explained how to create an AppArmor profile for a specific binary. However it is also possible to make a profile which is not linked to a specific executable, but you can load the profile in any systemd service. This is for example useful for services which share the same binary and only differ in the arguments you give on the command line. This can be useful for applications you start with uvicorn, or interpreted languages like Lisp or Rscript.

I assume you already have a systemd service file called myservice.service. In order to protect this service, create /etc/apparmor.d/myservice:

abi <abi/3.0>,
include <tunables/global>

profile myservice flags=(complain) {
  include <abstractions/base>

You see that I don’t use the path for a binary, but chose an arbitrary name.

Load the profile:

# apparmor_parser <em>/etc/apparmor.d/myservice</em>

Modify /etc/systemd/system/myservice.service or run systemctl edit myservice and in the [Service] section add:


Reload the service files:

# systemctl daemon-reload

Start your service:

# systemctl start myservice

Exercise your service and process all events with aa-logprof:

# aa-logprof

Don’t forget to put it in enforce mode with aa-enforce if you are sure the profile is complete.

Frehi Debian package repository for Bookworm

While creating AppArmor profiles, I recently encountered a few problems with the packages on Debian 12 Bookworm. If you use a more recent Linux kernel than the one which is in Bookworm (Linux 6.1 from Bookworm works fine), apparmor_parser can hang on certain profiles and cause a null pointer dereference in the kernel. This bug is also being tracked as upstream bug 346 and a partial fix has been committed to the Apparmor git repository. Another problem I encountered, is that aa-logprof and aa-genprof would completely ignore any exec events from within a subprofile, because these tools don’t support nested profiles. An AppArmor developer created a merge request which would at least show these events in aa-genprof and aa-logprof, and give you at least the option to inherit the profile and run the new process unconfined. If you want to create a child profile, you will still have to do this manually but at least the are now other valid options are now available.

I also recently stumbled on the package libapache2-mod-qos which is completely broken in Debian Bookworm: it is built against an older libpcre version which conflicts with the one Apache is using, causing it to crash immediately at startup. The bug is fixed in Debian trixie/sid, but that does not help users of the stable Debian release.

So I decided to build Apparmor 3.0.12 from sid with the additional patches mentioned above for Debian Bookworm, as well as the new libapache2-mod-qos which fixes the crash at Apache startup. I have created a public repository you can use if you are interested in these fixes. The packages work for me, but I cannot guarantee that they won’t cause any problem for you, so use them at your own risk. I only build for AMD64, so other architectures are not available.

Setting up the bookworm-frehi repository on Debian

In order to use these packages, create a file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bookworm-frehi.list with this content:

deb bookworm-frehi main contrib non-free
deb-src bookworm-frehi main contrib non-free

You can also use https in case you prefer that, but I try to use http because then I can cache packages with apt-cacher-ng.

Then create a file /etc/apt/preferences.d/bookworm-frehi:

Package: *
Pin: release n=bookworm-frehi
Pin-Priority: 99

This makes sure that by default you will still be using packages from the Debian repository, and it will only use packages from this repository when you explicitly request to do so.

Then you will have to request he public GPG key from and add this to your trusted apt keys:

$ export GNUPGHOME="$(mktemp -d)"
$ gpg --keyserver --recv-keys 1FBBAB8D2CA17863
$ gpg --export "1FBBAB8D2CA17863" > /tmp/bookworm-frehi.gpg
# mv /tmp/bookworm-frehi.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
# rm -rf $GNUPGHOME

Now run:

# apt update

and you can use the repository, for example:

# apt-cache policy apparmor
# apt-cache policy libapache2-mod-qos
# apt install -t bookworm-frehi apparmor libapache2-mod-qos

Protecting your Linux server against security exploits with AppArmor

AppArmor is a security feature available in the Linux kernel which adds Mandatory Access Control (MAC) to your system. Mandatory Access Control defines a security policy which the administrator of the system defines and cannot be overridden by the user. You use AppArmor to harden your system against all kinds of attacks, protecting your system against known or unknown zero-day exploits. It does so by restricting the applications on your system. You define an AppArmor profile for security sensitive applications which confines them to access only specific files, network access and other capabilities. This way it will become much harder or even impossible for an attacker to abuse a security hole in a service for which you have defined an AppArmor profile. SuSE sometimes calls this immunization.

AppArmor is similar to SELinux (Security-Enhanced Linux), the other well-known Linux security module which is used by default on Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Debian and Ubuntu have opted for AppArmor by default. AppArmor profiles are a bit easier to manage than SELinux.

Setting up Apparmor on Debian

First we install all the AppArmor utilities and all default profiles:

# apt install apparmor apparmor-profiles apparmor-utils apparmor-profiles-extra libpam-apparmor auditd

With the aa-status command you can check the AppArmor status:

# aa-status
43 profiles are loaded.
20 profiles are in enforce mode.
23 profiles are in complain mode.
0 profiles are in kill mode.
0 profiles are in unconfined mode.
17 processes have profiles defined.
0 processes are in enforce mode.
14 processes are in complain mode.
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834763) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834764) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834765) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834766) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834767) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834768) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834769) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834770) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834771) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834772) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834773) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834774) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834775) php-fpm
   /usr/sbin/php-fpm8.2 (834826) php-fpm
3 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.
   /usr/bin/freshclam (797288)
   /usr/sbin/clamd (662585)
   /usr/sbin/sssd (647439)
0 processes are in mixed mode.
0 processes are in kill mode.

We see that AppArmor is enabled and that it has 32 profiles of which 16 are being enforced and another 16 are in complain mode, which means that a warning will be logged when they violate the policy, but they will not be blocked. Currently 1 running process is confined in enforce mode.

All the profiles are installed in /etc/apparmor.d. The text files, usually named after the full path to the binary with the slashes replaced by dots.

To completely disable an Apparmor profile you use the aa-disable command. For example:

# aa-disable /usr/sbin/haveged

To enable a profile in complain mode, use the aa-complain command:

# aa-complain /usr/sbin/haveged

Use the aa-enforce command to set enforce an Apparmor profile:

# aa-enforce /usr/sbin/haveged

If you make a modification to one of the profiles in /etc/apparmor.d, you will need to make the kernel reload the profile with the apparmor_parser command:

# apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.haveged

If you want to remove a profile currently loaded in the kernel, you can use this command:

# apparmor_parser -R /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.haveged

When you have done this, you can remove the file if you don’t need it any more.

Creating Apparmor profiles with aa-genprof

I recommend creating an AppArmor profile for every service which is accessible via the network end/or deals with data from the outside world.

You can run the aa-unconfined command to find applications which listen on a TCP or UDP port and do not have an AppArmor profile loaded. These are excellent candidates to create a profile for.

Example 1: Creating an AppArmor profile for Knot Resolver

One of the unconfined processes indicated by aa-unconfined, is /usr/sbin/kresd which is Knot Resolver, the caching DNS resolver. I will generate a profile with aa-genprof. I need two shells for that: one where I run aa-genprof, and another one where I exercise the functionality of Knot Resolver. aa-genprof creates an empty profile and puts it in complain mode, so that all events generated by the process will be logged. aa-genprof will then propose rules for any of them.

So in the first shell I run:

# aa-genprof /usr/sbin/kresd
Updating AppArmor profiles in /etc/apparmor.d.

Before you begin, you may wish to check if a
profile already exists for the application you
wish to confine. See the following wiki page for
more information:

Profiling: /usr/sbin/kresd

Please start the application to be profiled in
another window and exercise its functionality now.

Once completed, select the "Scan" option below in
order to scan the system logs for AppArmor events.

For each AppArmor event, you will be given the
opportunity to choose whether the access should be
allowed or denied.

[(S)can system log for AppArmor events] / (F)inish

Now in the second shell we need to exercise the functionality of kresd. Let’s start by stopping, starting and restarting kresd:

# systemctl stop system-kresd.slice && systemctl start && systemctl restart system-kresd.slice

I also recommend reloading the service, but the kresd service does not support this, so this is of no use here. Now we exercise kresd by doing some DNS lookups, for example with the host and the kdig commands:

$ host
$ kdig -t mx

Wait for some time, and then you go back to the shell where aa-genprof is running and press S to scan the audit log for any generated events.

Profile:    /usr/sbin/kresd
Capability: net_bind_service
Severity:   8

 [1 - include <abstractions/nis>]
  2 - capability net_bind_service,
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

Here kresd requests the net_bind_service capability. This is needed to listen to a privileged port (port number < 1024). aa-genprof proposes 2 possible rules. The first option is to include abstractions/nis which contains capability net_bind_service. Files in /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions contain common rules which may be included in multiple different profiles. Often these abstractions are too broad and in case of doubt I recommend to choose the more specific option, which is option 2 here. I press 2 select this option, then press A to allow this.

Then Knot Resolver checks whether we have transparent hugepages enabled by reading /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled. This is because Knot Resolve uses jemalloc which reads this file.

Profile:  /usr/sbin/kresd
Path:     /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
New Mode: r
Severity: 4

 [1 - /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled r,]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / (G)lob / Glob with (E)xtension / (N)ew / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

I press A to allow this.

Knot Resolver uses lua for plug-ins, and so wants to read lua code:

Profile:  /usr/sbin/kresd
Path:     /usr/share/lua/5.1/cqueues/socket.lua
New Mode: r
Severity: unknown

 [1 - include <abstractions/totem>]
  2 - /usr/share/lua/5.1/cqueues/socket.lua r,
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / (G)lob / Glob with (E)xtension / (N)ew / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

Now I want to allow reading of all lua files in /usr/share/lua, independent of the lua version, so that when Knot Resolver starts using a newer lua version in the future, the rule is still valid. Press 2 select that rule and then press E for glob with extension multiple times, until you get option 5 - /usr/share/lua/**.lua r,. This matches all files which name end with .lua anywhere within /usr/share/lua. Make sure this options is selected and then press A to allow this.

kresd creates a control file:

Profile:  /usr/sbin/kresd
Path:     /run/knot-resolver/control/1
New Mode: owner w
Severity: unknown

 [1 - owner /run/knot-resolver/control/1 w,]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / (G)lob / Glob with (E)xtension / (N)ew / Audi(t) / (O)wner permissions off / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

The mode owner w means the permission to write the file only if the user as which the writing process is running is also the owner of the file.

If you are running multiple kresd processes, each process will create its own control file, so we want to use a wildcard here. Press G for glob so that you get the option 2 – owner /run/knot-resolver/control/* w, and press A to accept this.

kresd tries to take an exclusive lock on /var/cache/knot-resolver/lock.mdb:

Profile:  /usr/sbin/kresd
Path:     /var/cache/knot-resolver/lock.mdb
New Mode: owner rwk
Severity: unknown

 [1 - owner /var/cache/knot-resolver/lock.mdb rwk,]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / (G)lob / Glob with (E)xtension / (N)ew / Audi(t) / (O)wner permissions off / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

Notice the mode rwk: k is the permission, and in combination with w this is an exclusive lock. You can find the explanation of all file permissions in the AppArmor Core Policy Reference. Press A to allow this.

I’m using rpz-downloader to download RPZ files containing malicious domains I want to block. Knot Resolver wants to read these RPZ files:

Profile:  /usr/sbin/kresd
Path:     /var/lib/rpz-downloader/
New Mode: r
Severity: unknown

 [1 - /var/lib/rpz-downloader/ r,]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / (G)lob / Glob with (E)xtension / (N)ew / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

I want to allow access to all RPZ files in /var/lib/rpz-downloader, so I press N and I change the path to /var/lib/rpz-downloader/*.rpz and press A to accept this.

Knot Resolver tries to open an IPv4 TCP socket:

Profile:        /usr/sbin/kresd
Network Family: inet
Socket Type:    stream

 [1 - include <abstractions/apache2-common>]
  2 - include <abstractions/nameservice>
  3 - network inet stream,
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (I)gnore / Audi(t) / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

The proposed abstractions are too broad, so I select 3. You will also need to allow network inet dgram (IPv4 UDP), network inet6 stream (IPv6 TCP) and network inet6 dgram (IPv6 UDP).

When you have processed all events, you will get this:

= Changed Local Profiles =

The following local profiles were changed. Would you like to save them?

 [1 - /usr/sbin/kresd]
(S)ave Changes / Save Selec(t)ed Profile / [(V)iew Changes] / View Changes b/w (C)lean profiles / Abo(r)t

Only one profile is modified and you can view the changes by pressing V. You can save the changes by pressing S. After doing so, aa-genprof will continue running and you can press S to scan the logs again for any newly generated events. This way you can gradually improve your profile. If you are finished, you can quit aa-genprof by pressing F. You can run aa-genprof for your process again at any time, it will then modify the existing profile if it finds any new events.

When you have finished; check with aa-status whether your profile is still in complain mode, and if not change it back to complain mode with aa-complain.

This is how my final profile /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.kresd looks:

abi <abi/3.0>,

include <tunables/global>

/usr/sbin/kresd flags=(complain) {
  include <abstractions/base>

  capability net_bind_service,

  network inet dgram,
  network inet stream,
  network inet6 dgram,
  network inet6 stream,

  /etc/group r,
  /etc/knot-resolver/kresd.conf r,
  /etc/nsswitch.conf r,
  /etc/passwd r,
  /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt r,
  /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf r,
  /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled r,
  /usr/sbin/kresd mr,
  /usr/share/dns/root.hints r,
  /usr/share/dns/root.key r,
  /usr/share/lua/**.lua r,
  /var/lib/rpz-downloader/*.rpz r,
  owner /run/knot-resolver/control/ w,
  owner /run/knot-resolver/control/* w,
  owner /var/cache/knot-resolver/data.mdb rw,
  owner /var/cache/knot-resolver/lock.mdb rwk,


The flags=(complain) indicate that this profile will be loaded in complain mode. Keep it like that for some time until you are sure no new events are generated any more. You can check this by running aa-logprof. aa-logprof is similar to aa-genprof, except that it also processes past events logged in /var/log/audit.log and processes events for all processes for which you have defined an AppArmmor profile, and not a single one like aa-genprof. If you are sure the profile is complete, enforce it by running aa-enforce /usr/sbin/kresd.

Example 2: creating an AppArmor profile for Postfix

Another process marked by aa-unconfined on my system is /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/master, Postfix’ master process. I create a profile with aa-genprof:

# aa-genprof /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/master

In another shell, I stop, start, restart and reload Postfix:

# systemctl stop postfix@- && systemctl start postfix@- && systemctl restart postfix@- && systemctl reload postfix@-

To further exercise Postfix, send some mails, both outgoing mails to other mail servers as incoming mails originating from an external mail server. Check the mail queue with

# mailq

I’m not going through all events generated by Postfix, but I want to point out one particular type of event which we did not see with Knot Resolver:

Profile:  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/master
Execute:  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/showq
Severity: unknown

(I)nherit / (C)hild / (P)rofile / (N)amed / (U)nconfined / (X) ix On / (D)eny / Abo(r)t / (F)inish

The master process tries to start another executable, in this case showq. You have several options:

  • (I)nherit: the new process inherits the profile from the parent process. This means that it will run with the same permissions as the parent process.
  • (C)hild: the new process will use a subprofile defined within this profile. This is useful if you want to run the process with a different profile, depending on how it was started.
  • (P)rofile: the new process will run in its own generic profile, in this case /etc/apparmor.d/usr.lib.postfix.sbin.showq . Use this if you want to run it in the same profile as when you would have started /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/showq directly.
  • (N)amed: the new process will run with the profile with a name of your choice.
  • (U)confined: the new process will run unconfined, without any AppArmor restrictions.

Here I choose P because I want showq to run always with the same profile, no matter how it is started. Not only will aa-genprof create a rule which allows master to launch showq, it will also create a profile for showq, and start logging future events.

Then you will get the question whether you want to sanitize the environment:

Should AppArmor sanitise the environment when
switching profiles?

Sanitising environment is more secure,
but some applications depend on the presence

[(Y)es] / (N)o

My Postfix installation does not need any enviroment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH to be set, so it can safely sanitize the environment. I press Y.

When you have finished, make sure that all profiles are running in complain mode, otherwise you risk problems with mail delivery:

# cd /etc/apparmor.d
# for i in usr.lib.postfix.sbin.*; do aa-complain $i; done

My /etc/apparmor.d/usr.lib.postfix.sbin.master profile looks like this at the moment after some manual tweaking:

abi <abi/3.0>,

include <tunables/global>

/usr/lib/postfix/sbin/master flags=(complain) {
  include <abstractions/base>
  include <abstractions/postfix-common>

  capability dac_read_search,
  capability kill,
  capability net_bind_service,

  network inet stream,
  network inet6 dgram,
  network inet6 stream,
  network netlink raw,

  signal send peer=/usr/lib/postfix/sbin/*,

  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/anvil Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/cleanup Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/lmtp Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/local Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/master mr,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/pickup Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/postscreen Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/proxymap Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/qmgr Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/scache Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/showq Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/smtp Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/smtpd Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/tlsmgr Px,
  /usr/lib/postfix/sbin/trivial-rewrite Px,
  owner /etc/gai.conf r,
  owner /etc/group r,
  owner /etc/nsswitch.conf r,
  owner /etc/passwd r,
  owner /var/lib/postfix/master.lock rwk,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/pid/ rwk,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/anvil w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/bounce w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/bsmtp w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/defer w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/discard w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/dnsblog w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/error w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/ifmail w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/lmtp w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/local w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/maildrop w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/mailman w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/proxymap w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/proxywrite w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/relay w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/retry w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/rewrite w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/scache w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/scalemail-backend w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/smtp w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/smtp-amavis w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/smtpd w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/tlsmgr w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/tlsproxy w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/trace w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/uucp w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/verify w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/private/virtual w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/public/cleanup w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/public/flush w,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/public/pickup rw,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/public/qmgr rw,
  owner /var/spool/postfix/public/showq w,


I’m not going to add all profiles for other Postfix processes here, but you get the idea. More rules might still be needed, so that’s why I keep them running in complain mode and I regularly run aa-logprof.

Debugging problems caused by AppArmor

AppAmor logs events in /var/log/audit/audit.log if you have auditd running. You can grep for apparmor to see all events.

To easily process all new events logged in /var/log/audit/audit.log you can use aa-logprof:

# aa-logprof

Sources and more information

Inter and IBM Plex fonts for your Linux desktop

Recently I came around a post on the Fediverse mentioning the Inter fonts. There is even a GNOME issue open discussing making the Inter fonts the default in a future version of the GNOME desktop. This prompted me to try this font, and I have to say I am liking it so far.

The Inter font, does not have a monospace version available, but the Inter developer recommended some nice monospace fonts which match Inter. I decided to go for the IBM Plex Mono font.

Both Inter and IBM Plex are packaged in Debian, so you can easily install them with apt:

# apt install fonts-inter fonts-ibm-plex

To change the fonts in the GNOME desktop, you need to launch gnome-tweaks (install the package with apt if it’s not present on your system, and go to Fonts. I set Interface Text and Document Text fonts to Inter Light 10, the Monospace Text font to IBM Plex Mono Regular 10 and the Legacy Windows Titles fonts to Inter Bold.

Then in Firefox in the menu click on Settings and if you scroll down you will find the Fonts section with a button Advanced… next to it. Click on that button and set Proportional font to Sans Serif, the Serif font to IBM Plex Serif, the Sans Serif font to Inter and the Monospace font to IBM Plex Mono.

Of course you can use these fonts in other desktops and browsers.

Enjoy your fresh desktop fonts!

Wireguard VPN with systemd-networkd and Foomuri

After my first successful implementation of Foomuuri on a server with an IPv4 connection, I wanted to try Foomuuri in a different environment. This time I choose to implement it on my IPv4/IPv6 dual stack Wireguard VPN server. I originally set up this system with Shorewall, so let’s see how we should configure this with Foomuuri.

While at it, I also moved the configuration of Wireguard to systemd-networkd, where the main network interface was already configured. This was also useful because some things which were configured in Shorewall before and which Foomuuri does not do by itself, can now be configured in systemd-networkd.

systemd-networkd configuration

I create /etc/systemd/network/wg0.netdev with these contents:

Name = wg0
Kind = wireguard
Description = wg0 - Wireguard VPN server

PrivateKeyFile = /etc/systemd/network/wg0.privkey
ListenPort = 51820

# client 1
PublicKey = publickey_of_client
AllowedIPs =
AllowedIPs = aaaa:bbbb:cccc:dddd:ffff::2/128

I moved the /etc/wireguard/privatekey file to /etc/systemd/network/wg0.privkey, and then give it appropriate permissions so that user systemd-network can read it:

# chown root:systemd-network /etc/systemd/network/wg0.privkey
# chmod 640 /etc/systemd/network/wg0.privkey

Then I create /etc/systemd/network/

Name = wg0

Address =
Address = fd42:42:42::1/64

Destination = aaaa:bbbb:cccc:dddd:ffff::2/128

For IPv4, we set the address to and systemd-networkd will automatically take care of adding this subnet to the routing table. As we are using public IPv6 addresses for the VPN clients, I add a [ROUTE] section which takes care of adding these IP address to the routing table.

The configuration of the public network interface is stored in /etc/systemd/network/



Important here is that we enable IP forwarding and IPv6 NDP proxy here. Both were things we could configure in Shorewall before, but Foomuuri does not support setting these. This is not a problem, because this can be set up directly in systemd-networkd.

To reload the configuration for all network interface, I run:

networkctl reload

To bring up the Wireguard connection:

networkctl up wg0

Because of systemd issue #25547, networkctl reload is not enough if you make changes to the peer configuration in wg0.netdev. You will first have to delete the network device with the command

networkctl delete wg0

after which you can run networkctl reload and bring up the network connection. In case of doubt all network interfaces are configured correctly, you can also completely restart the systemd-networkd service:

# systemctl restart systemd-networkd

While working on the network configuration, of course make sure you have access to a real console of the system, so that in case your system becomes inaccessible, you can still fix things through the console.

Foomuuri configuration

Now we define the zones in /etc/foomuuri/zones.conf:

zone {
  public ens192
  vpn wg0

Foomuuri by default does not define a macro for the Wireguard UDP port, so I create one in /etc/foomuuri/services.conf:

macro {
	wireguard udp dport 51820

I adjust some logging settings in /etc/foomuuri/log.conf. In case I want to filter outgoing connections from the machine in the future, I want to log the UID of the process and I also increase the log rate, as I had the impression that I sometimes was missing valuable log messages while debugging. Adjust the values if you wan to reduce log spam.

foomuuri {
  log_rate "2/second burst 20"
  log_level "level info flags skuid"

I set up masquerading (SNAT) in /etc/foomuuri.conf/snat.conf :

snat {
  saddr oifname ens192 masquerade

Then I set up these rules for traffic going through our firewall:

public-localhost {
  icmpv6 1 2 3 4 128
  drop log

localhost-public {

vpn-public {

public-vpn {
  icmpv6 1 2 3 4 128
  drop log

vpn-localhost {

localhost-vpn {
  icmpv6 1 2 3 4 128
  reject log

Notice that I allow ICMPv6 traffic that should not be dropped.

As usually check your configuration before reloading it:

# fooomuuri check
# foomuuri reload

Testing and debugging

If things don’t work as expected, enable debugging in the wireguard kernel module and check the kernel logs. I refer to the previous article about this for more details.


Setting up Foomuuri was pretty easy again. The most difficult thing was getting the systemd-networkd configuration completely right. Especially with IPv6 it can take quite some time debugging before everything works as expected.

Setting up Foomuuri, an nftables based firewall

Up to now I have always been using the Shorewall firewall on all my Linux systems. I find it very easy to configure while at the same time it’s very powerful and flexible so that you can also use it with more complicated set-ups, such as routers with multiple network interfaces, VPN’s and bridges. Unfortunately Shorewall is still based on the old xtables (iptables, ip6tables, ebtables, etc…) infrastructure. While it still works and in reality the iptables commands are actually now front-ends to the more modern nftables back-end, Shorewall development has stalled and it looks very unlikely it will ever be ported to nftables.

I started using Firewalld, a firewall which is used by default on Red Hat and Fedora based systems. However I did not like it. Configuration of Firewalld happens through the command line with firewall-cmd, which I find much more complicated than just editing a configuration file which usually contains examples and gives you an easy overview of the configuration. Firewalld saves its configuration in XML files. You could edit these files instead of using firewall-cmd, but that is obviously much more complicated than editing configuration files which were designed for human editing. Furthermore I found Firewalld to be very inflexible. Firewalld does not have support of filtering traffic on a bridge (layer 2 filtering), unlike Shorewall.

Recently I discovered the nftables based firewall foomuuri. It’s still a very young project but it’s actively developed, already has extensive features, is packaged in Debian and is configured through human-readable configuration files. I decided to try it on a server where I wanted to filter incoming and outgoing network traffic.

Installing Foomuuri on Debian

Foomuuri is availabe in Debian testing and unstable, but it has also been backported to Debian 12 Bookworm. To use that package, you have to enable the bookworm-backports repository first. Then install the foomuuri package

# apt install foomuuri

If you are using NetworkManager also install foomuuri-firewalld, because it will allow NetworkManager to set the zone the network interface belongs to.

Configuring Foomuuri

Foomuuri can be configured through files in the /etc/foomuuri directory. Foomuuri will read all files which name ends with .conf, so you can split up the configuration in as many files as you want or just put everything in a single file, as you prefer. I like the split configuration files of Shorewall, so I will do something similar here.

Before activating the configuration, always run

# foomuuri check

to validate your configuration. You can start and stop the firewall by starting and stopping the systemd service, you can reload the configuration by running

 # foomuuri reload

You can find the documentation of Foomuuri on the Foomuuri wiki.

Defining zones

The first ting we have to do is define the zones and set which interfaces belongs to which zone. I create /etc/foomuuri/zones.conf:

zone {
  public enp1s0

I create the zone localhost and the zone public and add the network interface enp1s0 to it. You can add multiple interfaces to a zone by separating them by spaces. If you are using NetworkManager, you don’t have to add the interfaces here and can leave the zone empty. You can configure the firewall zone in NetworkManager and it will set it through foomuuri-firewalld.

Using macros to alias configuration options

Macros can be used to define certain configuration options you want to use multiple times without having to write them completely every time. In practice a lot of macros are already configured which define the configuration for common services. You can see all defined macros by running

# foomuuri list macro

For example the macro imap defines the configuration tcp 143, so that you can just write imap instead of tcp 143 in the configuration. I added a few which were not defined by default in /etc/foomuuri/services.conf:

macro {
	nrpe	tcp 5666
	nmb	udp 137 138 139; tcp 139

Macros can be used to configure common subnets. For example I have a file named /etc/foomuuri/subnets.conf:

macro {

I also use macros to create lists of individual hosts, such as all NFS clients which need to access this NFS server in /etc/foomuuri/nfs_clients.conf

macro {
	nfs_clients # web server
	nfs_clients + # gitlab
	nfs_clients + # nextcloud

For easy readability, I put every host in a single line, and I add a comment for my own reference. With the + sign I add all next hosts to the macro.

Firewall for incoming connections

To configure Foomuuri to filter incoming connections to my servers, I create a section public-localhost which contains the firewall rules for traffic coming from the public zone to localhost. I put this in the file /etc/foomuuri/public-localhost.conf:

public-localhost {
  ping  saddr mysubnet
  nmb   saddr mysubnet
  smb   saddr mysubnet
  nfs   saddr nfs_clients
  nrpe  saddr
  drop log

My server is acting as a DCHP-server, so I use the dhcp-server macro to allow all this traffic, just as I allow all incoming ssh traffic. I allow ping, nmb and smb traffic from mysubnet. Notice that in these rules I use my custom macros nmb and mysubnet. Then I allow nfs from all addresses listed in my macro nfs_clients, and I allow nrpe from a specific IP address. Finally I end with a rule which drops and logs all traffic which has not matched any of the rules before.

Firewall for outgoing connections

I think that filtering outgoing connections is a very effective security hardening measure. In case people with bad intentions get access to your server through a non-root user account, this will severely limit their abilities to move laterally through your network and attack other systems, to run a crypto-miner, or download malware from the Internet.

localhost-public {
  nmb uid root
  ntp uid systemd-timesync
  ping uid root daddr mysubnet # dhcpd sometimes pings
  smtp daddr uid postfix
  domain daddr
  uid root tcp daddr dport 8140 # puppet agent
  uid _apt tcp dport 3142 daddr
  uid root ssh daddr # backups
  drop daddr tcp dport 80 # don't fill logs with Puppetlabs facter trying to collect facts from Amazon EC2/Azure
  reject log

I allow outgoing connections for different services, and for most services I set the user which can create that connection, and to which host I allow the connection. I explicitly drop without logging connections to port 80, because facter tries to connect to this address every time it runs in order to get some metadata from your cloud service provider. If your system is running on Amazon or Microsoft Azure cloud services, you will probably want to allow this connection instead, so you can then just remove the drop word.

In order to log the UID of the process which tried to establish a rejected connection, in future Foomuuri versions (starting from Foomuuri version 0.22) you can replace the last rule by

reject log log_level "level warn flags skuid"

In current version 0.21, it is possible by setting this globally for all connections. I created /etc/foormuuri/loglevel.conf:

foomuuri {
  log_level "level info flags skuid"

Integrating Fail2ban with Foomuuri

I found inspiration for integrating Fail2ban with Foomuuri in issue 9 on the Foomuuri issue tracker.

Create /etc/fail2ban/action.d/foomuuri with these contents:

actionstart =
actionstop  =
actioncheck =
actionban   = foomuuri iplist add fail2ban <ip>
actionunban = foomuuri iplist del fail2ban <ip>
actionflush =

Then set foomuri as the default banaction by creating /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/foomuri.conf:

banaction = foomuuri

Then foomuuri should create the fail2ban iplist. We can configure it to so by creating /etc/foomuuri/fail2ban.conf:

iplist {

Then I add this rule as first rule to the public-localhost section:

  saddr @fail2ban drop log fail2ban drop

This will drop all connections coming from an address in the iplist fail2ban, and will also log them with prefix fail2ban. If you don’t want this to be logged, just remove log fail2ban.

To ensure that Foomuuri is started before Fail2ban, so that the fail2ban iplist exists before Fail2ban starts to use it, create



After making these changes, first restart Foomuuri and then Fail2ban.


I found Foomuuri easy to use for a system with one network interface. Configuration through the configuration files is easy, also when implementing filtering for outgoing packets. Even though Foomuuri is still a young project, it already has many features and its author is very reactive to discussions and issues on Github. I also found the documentation on the wiki very helpful

I will try to implement Foomuuri on more complex setups in the future, such as on a host for virtual machines of which the network interface is bridged to the main network interface of the host, VPN servers, routers, etc…

Finally I want to thank the Foomuri developer Kim B. Heino and the maintainer of the Debian package Romain Francoise for their work and making this available to the community.

Noteworthy Debian Trixie/Sid changes July 22 2023

Version 1.207 of gcc-defaults uploaded to sid makes GCC version 13 the default GCC version in Debian Sid.

systemd was updated to version 254 RC2. One of the changes is that this introduces the command systemctl soft-reboot which does a user-space reboot. This means that the hardware nor the kernel is reset. This can be used as a lightweight, faster reboot.

sdl12-compat package 1.2.64-5 now replaces the SDL 1.2 libraries. This compatibility layer implements the SDL 1.2 APIs on top of SDL 2.

Finally more GNOME 44 packages, which were already available in experimental for some time, are now entering unstable. The file chooser in GTK+4 applications now has a grid view showing file thumbnails. In the Preferences of the Nautilus file manager you can enable the option Expandable folders in list view, a feature which was present in earlier Nautilus versions, but which was temporarily dropped when it was ported to GTK+4. The gnome-shell and gnome-control-center packages are not yet upgraded to version 44 in Sid, so if you want a more complete GNOME 44 experience, you still have to get these from experimental.

New in the Debian archive is Fangfrisch, a tool which can be used to regularly download additional signature databases for the ClamAV anti-virus software.

The Chromium web browser was updated to version 115. New in this version is the Topics API, which is a new attempt by Google to replace third-party cookies which comes after the failed FLoC attempt and hence we can expect it to be very controversial again. Go to the address chrome://flags/#privacy-sandbox-ads-apis in Chromium, to check whether the Privacy Sandbox Ads APIs are disabled. On my system it was, but I’m not sure whether because this is only enabled by default in Google proprietary Chrome builds or because I’m using different anti-tracking extensions. On a slightly related topic: Google is proposing a new API which basically implements DRM for web pages, which would give websites control over which devices and browsers can be used to view the site and could make it impossible to use ad-blockers. If you care about privacy and an open web, please stop using Chromium and switch to Firefox instead.

Speaking of Firefox, the firefox-esr package was updated from version 102 to version 115, bringing all new features of this version to the people who are using this default Firefox package.

The wine-development package was updated from version 7.22 to 8.3, which should improve compatibility with many Windows applications. I expect more updates to bring it in line with the latest 8.13 version, will be coming soon.

Furthermore I mention that Pipewire was updated to 0.3.74, the Flightgear flight simulator to version 2020.3.18 and many more.

Noteworthy Debian Trixie/Sid changes July 8 2023

Here is a late quick overview of important changes in Debian Sid during the last two weeks.

glibc was updated from version 2.36 to version 2.37. This version mostly contains bug fixes and mintor improvements. An important regression by this update was fixed in the Debian package 2.37-4, which is not yet in testing/trixie, so you might want to update immediately to the sid version of glibc if you are on testing.

Linux 6.3.11 fixes the so-called StackRot security vulnerability (CVE-2023-3269). An exploit wil be made public soon and will allow any local user to get root access rights, so make sure you are running this kernel on all your systems. This kernel also re-enables CONFIG_VIRTIO_MEM which got disabled by mistake in Debian 12 Bookworm. Both the StackRot security vulnerability as the CONFIG_VIRTIO_MEM regression are now also fixed in the latest kernel release in bookworm-security.

Server software

PowerDNS Authorative Server 4.8.0 adds Lightning Stream support, while PowerDNS Recursor 4.9.0 has some performance improvements, amongst others.

Cyrus IMAP 3.8.0 adds support for some IMAP RFCs and implements new JMAP features.

NGinx 1.24.0 enables TLSv1.3 by default.

Debian’s Slurm package was updated to version 23.02.3.

Desktop software

Firefox 115 is now available in sid. Keep in mind that the firefox package never moves to testing and stable, only the firefox-esr package does. Firefox 115 will become the future Firefox ESR release though. Most important change in Firefox 115 is that it enables hardware video decoding for Intel GPUs with VA-API on Linux by default.

Remmina in sid was updated from 1.4.29 to 1.4.31. This version brings back the remmina-plugin-spice package which was also disabled in Debian 12.

Digikam 8.0.0 has improved file format support, new OCR tool and other improvements.

The Kdenlive video editor version 23.04 adds nested timelines, new effects and transitions, improvements to subtile handling and integrates the Whisper speech recognition system.

Shotwell 0.32 also brings improved file format support and various other improvements.

Phosh, the GNOME Phone Shell was updated to version 0.29. Improvements include call notification on the lock screen and audio device selection to the settings.

Noteworthy Debian Trixie/Sid changes June 24 2023

As expected, the second week of Trixie development was a lot more quiet than the first week.

KDE Frameworks was updated from version 5.103 to 5.107. While this has little visible changes, these are libraries which lay the foundations for improvements and bug fixes in KDE applications.

KDE Gear apps Neochat (a Matrix client), Elisa (a music player), Dragon Player (a movie player), Filelight (a disk space visualizer) and Spectacle (a screenshot application) were updated to the 23.04 release. Spectacle has gotten a complete redesign of the user interface and supports screen recording on Wayland.

The QT based display manager sddm version 0.20 now has experimental Wayland support and has enabled HiDPI scaling by default.

The AV1 encoder and decoder svt-av1 was updated to version 1.6.0. This brings once again performance and quality improvements.

Other upgraded packages in sid include Homebank 5.6.5, Deluge 2.1, GNOME Music 44 and many others.