I wanted to set up Wireguard on a VPS, not only to tunnel IPv4 traffic, but also allowing me to tunnel IPv6 traffic. As this is IPv6 of course I preferred not to use NAT, but to assign a public IP address to the client. I read some documentation and blog posts, but I struggled getting it to work. Most tutorials I found on the Internet, create a separate IPv6 subnet for the VPN but I could not get this to work. For some reason, IPv6 traffic successfully went through the VPN tunnel and then exited the VPN gateway, but then any response never reached my VPN gateway and hence also not the client.
I decided to try another way: using an NDP proxy. NDP or the Neighbour Discovery Protocol, is similar to ARP which is used in IPv4. Using this protocol, network devices can discover where on the network a certain IP is located. By letting the VPN gateway answer NDP requests for the VPN client, the gateway would correctly send back all responses to the VPN gateway, which then forwards it to the VPN clients.
Configuring the network on the VPN gateway
I use systemd-networkd to set up the network. It’s the most modern way of network configuration and works the same on all distributions using systemd, but of course you can make the same settings in /etc/network/interfaces or whatever your distribution uses. Of course when making changes to a remote server, make sure you can access a console without needing a working network connection on the server, in case things go wrong and the network connection breaks.
On my VPN server, the public network interface is named ens192 (use the command $ ip addr to find it on your system). My public IPv4 address is www.xxx.yyy.zzz with subnet 255.255.255.0 and gateway ww.xx.yy.1. I have the 64 bit IPV6 prefix aaaa:bbbb:cccc:dddd and the IPv6 gateway is fe80::1.
In the [Interface] section make sure to use the same IP addresses as the ones you have set in the corresponding [Peer] section on the VPN gateway. Set the DNS name (or IP address) of the VPN gateway as Endpoint in the [Peer] section. The hostname’s DNS entry can have both an A and AAAA record. You can replace your DNS servers by your preferred ones. You can also consider running your own DNS server on the VPN gateway.
Make sure that all wg*.conf files on client and server are only readable by root, because they contain private keys.
For security reasons you could even choose to not open the SSH port for the net zone. SSH will only be accessible via the VPN then.
Then in order to make sure that the gateway knows that the VPN client aaa:bbb:cccc:dddd::2 is reachable via the VPN gateway, we need to set up NDP proxying. The Neighbor Discovery Protocol is similar to ARP in IPv6. We set this in /etc/shorewall6/proxyndp:
aaa:bbb:cccc:dddd::2 wg0 ens192
Finally we need to enable IP forwarding in /etc/shorewall6/shorewall6.conf:
Then we check whether everything compiles fine and enable and start the service:
For IPv4 we configure Shorewall to use NAT to provide Internet access to the VPN clients.
net NET_IF dhcp,tcpflags,logmartians,nosmurfs,sourceroute=0,routefilter,routeback,physical=ens192
vpn wg0 tcpflags,logmartians,nosmurfs,sourceroute=0,optional,routefilter,routeback
$FW net ACCEPT
vpn net ACCEPT
vpn $FW ACCEPT
net all DROP $LOG_LEVEL
# The FOLLOWING POLICY MUST BE LAST
all all REJECT $LOG_LEVEL
# Drop packets in the INVALID state
Invalid(DROP) net $FW tcp
# Drop Ping from the "bad" net zone.. and prevent your log from being flooded..
Ping(DROP) net $FW
SSH(ACCEPT) net $FW
ACCEPT net $FW udp 51820
MASQUERADE 192.168.7.0/24 NET_IF
Compile and load the rules and enable Shorewall permanently:
Some time ago, I received a new laptop, the HP Elitebook 845 G8. This is a 14″ laptop with an AMD CPU of the Renoir family, in my case an AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 5850U. As always, I run Debian GNU/Linux testing (currently Bookworm) on it. In this post, I will explain how to get all hardware working. This guide probably also works for other G8 Elitebooks, such as the Elitebook 835 G8 and Elitebook 855 G8, because they are all quite similar.
I used a USB disk to boot the installer and a USB-C dock with an Ethernet interface to do a network installation. If you use the Debian installer with non-free firmware, you can also do the installation over wifi. I have not tried the current stable release Debian 11 Bullseye on this system. For best compatibility I strongly recommend testing because it has a more recent kernel and drivers.
Now we need to write it to a USB disk. Make sure there is no data on the drive you want to keep, because this process will completely wipe the disk.
To write the ISO image to a USB disk, Windows users can use the application Rufus, MacOS users can use Balena Etcher. If you are using Linux, you can dd the ISO image on your USB disk, or use a GUI like Fedora Media Writer.
Reboot the system and press F10 when the HP logo appears to load the BIOS/UEFI setup. Go to the Advanced page and select Boot Options. There make sure that USB Storage Boot is enabled. If you want to work with custom kernels, it can be handy to disable Secure Boot in Security – Secure Boot Configuration, but it’s not needed to install and use Debian.
Save the changes you made (if any) and reboot the system and press F9 at the HP logo to get the boot menu. In the boot menu, select your USB drive to start the Debian installer.
Enabling non-free repositories
We will need to configure the non-free repositories for apt because we need several firmware packages from non-free. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and check whether any deb line has maincontrib and non-free at the end. If not add it, and then run
# apt update
Updating the BIOS/UEFI firmware
If you have a Windows installation, you can update the firmware from there, even before you install Linux. But you can also update the firmware without Windows. Follow the instructions in that blog post. It’s important to do this, not only because this gives you essential security fixes, but also bug fixes, some of which specifically for Linux compatibility.
Updating CPU firmware
Install the package amd64-microcode to ensure your AMD CPU is always running the latest microcode, which includes security fixes:
# apt-get install amd64-microcode
Flashing other firmware
The fwupd utility can download and install firmware from the LVFS. The firmware of the fingerprint reader of the Elitebook 845 G8, can be updated like this, and may be necessary to get the fingerprint reader working in Linux. First make sure fwupd is installed:
# apt install fwupd fwupd-amd64-signed
Now update all available firemware:
# fwupdtool update
If you have a HP USB-C Dock G5, then new firmware is also available in the LVFS, but it’s in the testing repository. To enable this repository, run this command:
This laptop can also be delivered with an Intel AX200 Wi-Fi 6 adapter (which is actually a better option than this one from Realtek). If you have this one, you will need to install the firmware-iwlwifi package instead.
lsusb identifies this smartcard reader as an Alcor AU9540:
Bus 005 Device 004: ID 058f:9540 Alcor Micro Corp. AU9540 Smartcard Reader
Note that it only sees the smartcard reader when a card has been inserted.
You will need pscd with the CCID driver to use this smartcard reader:
# apt install pscsd
The fingerprint reader can be seen like this in lsusb:
Bus 003 Device 003: ID 06cb:00df Synaptics, Inc.
Make sure you have installed all firmware updates with fwupd and then you need to install these packages:
# apt install fprintd libpam-fprintd
In GNOME, under Settings – Users you can enable login on fingerprint and add your fingerprints.
04:00.5 Multimedia controller: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD] ACP/ACP3X/ACP6x Audio Coprocessor (rev 01)<br />04:00.6 Audio device: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD] Family 17h/19h HD Audio Controller
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0408:5348 Quanta Computer, Inc. HP HD Camera
The webcam works out of the box. Many applications will see the IR camera as a second camera.
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 0bda:b00c Realtek Semiconductor Corp. 802.11ac WLAN Adapter
If you use lsusb -v you will see that this is actually the Bluetooth Radio adapter. It is combined with the wifi adapter, hence the confusion.
HP does not support S3 (traditional suspend-to-ram/standby) in its recent Elitebooks any more, but instead uses s0ix (s2idle/suspend-to-idle/modern standby). S2idle support for AMD CPU’s was only added in Linux 5.11 with the amd_pmc driver. I recommend a very recent kernel, because later kernel versions had bug fixes in this regard too. However suspend regressed in stable update 5.17.3 (and others), a bug which was fixed in 5.17.5. I’m using a custom-built 5.17.5 kernel, but a fixed kernel will appear soon in Debian.
If you have HP Drivelock enabled, then your system will fail to resume. Drivelock is a security feature which can be set up in the BIOS and requires you to enter a password when starting up the system in order to access the contents of the disk. When trying to resume the system, fans start running, the keyboard backlight reacts to key presses, but the screen remains blank, nothing is written to logs and also network does not come up. Apparently this is a bug in HP’s BIOS/UEFI firmware which can be worked around by adding iommu=pt to the kernel command line. To do so, edit /etc/default/grub and add this to the variable GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT. For example:
Then update the GRUB configuration:
Install isenkram to help install drivers when plugging in hardware
Isenkram is a utitliy which will show a message when you connect hardware to your system and extra software or firmware is available for that hardware.
# apt install isenkram
Enabling trimming of the NVME SSD
Enable the fstrim timer to make sure the SSD is trimmed on regular intervals:
TLP is a tool which optimizes power consumption of your system in order to increase battery time. TLP also has an options Radio Device Wizard, which I will use here to automatically disable wifi when the system is connected via an Ethernet cable.
# apt install tlp tlp-rdw
Configure the Radio Device Wizard by creating the file /etc/tlp.d/10-tlp-rdw.conf:
# tlp-rdw - Parameters for the radio device wizard
# Possible devices: bluetooth, wifi, wwan.
# Separate multiple radio devices with spaces.
# Default: <none> (for all parameters below)
# Radio devices to enable on disconnect.
# Radio devices to enable/disable when docked.
# Radio devices to enable/disable when undocked.
To enable best ASPM power saving features when on battery, create /etc/tlp.d/20-aspm.conf:
Submitting your system to the Linux Hardware database
The Linux Hardware database is a useful tool where users searching for hardware, can check the compatibility of systems with Linux. I recommend running this tool on all your Linux systems. After submission, you will get a link where you can view the data and indicate whether all hardware works and which work-arounds you had to apply. Click on the Review button on the page to do so.
# apt install hw-probe
# hwprobe – all – upload
Actually Linux compatibility of the HP Elitebook 845 is actually in good shape. It’s not perfect, but all hardware can be made to work. On distros like Ubuntu, which install non-free firmware by default, it should even be easier to make everything work. Still HP lags behind Dell and Lenovo in Linux support, because they don’t make it possible to flash the BIOS/UEFI firmware using fwupd, while all recent Dell and Lenovo business laptops have their firmware available in the LVFS. Also the problem that iommu=pt needs to be used to successfully resume the laptop when Drivelock is enabled, is a problem that HP should address in a BIOS update.
Fortunately it is possible to install firmware updates without having Windows installed, but it’s a bit more manual work. Here I will explain how I managed to update my Elitebook 845 G8, but this should work for most recent HP laptops and desktops.
If you don’t know the exact model of your system, use this command (as root):
# /usr/sbin/dmidecode | grep "Product Name"
On the HP downloads page, you will probably get a mssage that it was unable to find drivers for your product. Click on the link Choose a different OS and select any Windows 10 version. Now you will find the latest firmware for your system under BIOS-System Firmware. Click on Download. It will try to let you install a Windows Download and Install Assistant: click on No thanks, I will download and install manually to directly get the firmware file, which should have a name similar to sp138978.exe.
Once you have downloaded this file, we need to extract it. You can use 7-Zip for that. Make sure it is installed on your system:
# apt-install 7zip
Then we will make a directory and extract the firmware package in it:
$ mkdir /tmp/hpfirmware
$ cd /tmp/hpfirmware
$ 7zz x ~/Downloads/sp138978.exe
You will see many files in the /tmp/hpfirmware directory, such as the History.txt file which you can read if you want to know which changes and bug fixes this update brings. The firmware itself is stored in a file with the extension .bin, in my case it’s named T82_01082000.bin.
To install this firmware, we have to copy it to a directory HP/DEVFW/firmware.bin in your EFI directory (this assumes that you are booting your system in UEFI mode and not in legacy BIOS mode). So as root run these commands from the /tmp/hpfirmware directory:
Now reboot your system. In GRUB’s menu, choose UEFI Firmware Settings. You will get HP’s Startup Menu of which the last menu item is Update System and Supported Device Firmware. This should now automatically install the firmware update. This takes several minutes , and you screen will go blank during some time: don’t panic and let it run.
A web application firewall (WAF) filters HTTP traffic. By integrating this in your web server, you can make sure potentially dangerous requests are blocked before they arrive to your web application or sensitive data leaks out of your web server. This way you add an extra defensive layer potentially offering extra protection against zero-day vulnerabilities in your web server or web applications. In this blog post, I give a tutorial how to install and configure ModSecurity web application firewall and the Core Rule Set on Debian. With some minor adaptions you can also use this guide for setting up ModSecurity on Ubuntu or other distributions.
ModSecurity is the most well-known open source web application firewall. The future of ModSecurity does not look too bright but fortunately with Coraza WAF an alternative which is completely compatible with ModSecurity is in development. At this moment Coraza only integrates with the Caddy web server, and does not have a connector for Apache or NGinx so for that reason it is currently not yet usable as a replacement for ModSecurity.
While ModSecurity provides the framework for filtering HTTP traffic, you also need rules which define what to bloc and that’s where the Core Rule Set (CRS) comes in. CRS is a set of generic rules winch offer protection to a various range of common attacks via HTTP, such as SQL injection, code injection and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.
Install ModSecurity and the Core Rule Set on Debian
I install the Apache module for ModSecurity, the geoip-database, which can be used for blocking all requests from certain countries, and modsecurity-crs, which contains the Core Rule Set. I take this package from testing, because it has a newer version (version 3.3.2 at the time of writing). There is no risk in taking this package from testing, because it only contains the rules and does not depend on any other packages from testing/unstable. If you prefer faster updates, you can also use unstable.
Now edit /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf. I highlight some of the options:
#SecRule MULTIPART_UNMATCHED_BOUNDARY "!@eq 0" \
#"id:'200004',phase:2,t:none,log,deny,msg:'Multipart parser detected a possible unmatched boundary.'"
The SecRuleEngine option controls whether rules should be processed. If set to Off, you completely disable all rules, with On you enable them and it will block malicious actions. If set to DetectionOnly, ModSecurity will only log potential malicious activity flagged by your rules, but will not block them. DetectionOnly can be useful for temporary trying out the rules in order to find false positives before you really start blocking potential malicious activity.
The SecAuditLog option defines a file which contains audit logs. This file will contain detailed logs about every request triggering a ModSecurity rule.
Set SecStatusEngine to Off to prevent ModSecurity sending version information back its developers.
After changing any configuration related to ModSecurity or the Core Rule Set, reload your Apache web server:
# systemctl reload apache2
Configuring the Core Rule Set
The Core Rule Set can be configured via the file /etc/modsecurity/crs/crs-setup.conf.
By default the Core Rule Set is using anomaly scoring mode. This means that individual rules add to a so called anomaly score, which at the end is evaluated. If the anomaly score exceeds a certain threshold, then the traffic is blocked. You can read more about this configuration in crs-setup.conf but the default configuration should be fine for most people.
Setting the paranoia level
The paranoia level is a number from 1 to 4 which determines which rules are active and contribute to the anomaly scoring. The higher the paranoia level, the more rules are activated and hence the more aggressive the Core Rule Set is, offering more protection but potentially also causing more false positives. By default the paranoia level is set to 1. If you work with sensitive data, it is recommended to increase the paranoia level.
The executing paranoia level defines the rules which will be executed but their score will not be added to the anomaly scoring. When HTTP traffic hits rules of the executing paranoia level, this traffic will only be logged but not be blocked. It is a especially useful to prepare for increasing the paranoia level and finding false positives on this higher level, without causing any disruption for your users.
To set the paranoia level to 1 and the executing paranoia level to 2, make sure you have these rules set in crs-setup.conf:
Once you have fixed all false positives, you can raise the paranoia level to 2 to increase security.
Defining the allowed HTTP methods
By default the Core Rule Set only allows the GET, HEAD, POST and OPTIONS HTTP methods. For many standard sites this will be enough but if your web applications also use restful APIs or WebDAV, then you will need to add the required methods. Change rule 900200, and add the HTTP methods mentioned in the comments in crs-setup.conf.
setvar:'tx.allowed_methods=GET HEAD POST OPTIONS'"
Disallowing old HTTP versions
There is a rule which determines which HTTP versions you allow in HTTP requests. I uncomment it and modify it to only allow HTTP versions 1.1 and 2.0. Legitimate browsers and bots always use one of these modern HTTP versions and older versions usually are a sign of malicious activity.
Personally I’m not a fan of completely blocking all traffic from a whole country, because you will also block legitimate visitors to your site, but in case you want to this, you can configure this in crs-setup.conf:
Add the two-letter country codes you want to block to the last line (before the two quotes), multiple country codes separated by a space.
Make sure you have the package goeip-database installed.
Core Rule Set Exclusion rules for well-known web applications
The Core Rule Set contains some rule exclusions for some well-known web applications like WordPress, Drupal and NextCloud which reduces the number of false positives. I add the following section to crs-setup.conf which will allow me to enable the exclusions in the Apache configuration by setting the WEBAPPID variable in the Apache configuration whenever I need them.
Adding rules for Log4Shell and Spring4Shell detection
At the end of 2021 a critical vulnerability CVE-2021-44228, named Log4Shell, was detected in Log4j, which allows remote attackers to run code on a server with the vulnerable Log4j version. While the Core Rule Set offered some mitigation of this vulnerability out of the box, this protection was not complete. New improved detection rules against Log4Shell were developed. Because of the severity of this bug and the fact that it’s being exploited in the wild, I strongly recommend adding this protection manually when using ModSecurity version 3.3.2 (or older). Newer, not yet released versions, should have complete protection out of the box.
First modify /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/security2.conf so that it looks like this:
# Default Debian dir for modsecurity's persistent data
# Include all the *.conf files in /etc/modsecurity.
# Keeping your local configuration in that directory
# will allow for an easy upgrade of THIS file and
# make your life easier
# Include OWASP ModSecurity CRS rules if installed
SecRuleUpdateTargetById 932130 "REQUEST_HEADERS"
Then create the file /etc/modsecurity/99-CVE-2021-44228.conf with this content:
In the first 3 lines we see that we hit different filters which check for XSS vulnerabilities, more specifically rules 941100, 941110 and 941160 all of them having the tag paranoia-level/1.
Then the fourth line shows that we hit rule 949110 which caused the web server to return the HTTP 403 Forbidden response because the inbound anomaly score, 15, is higher than 5. Then rule 980130 gives us some more information about the scoring: we hit a score of 15 at the paranoia level 1, while rules at the other paranoia levels rules contributed 0 to the total score. We also see the scores for individual types of attack: in this case all 15 points where scored by rules detecting XSS attacks. This is the meaning of the different abbreviations used:
remote file inclusion
local file inclusion
remote code execution
More detailed logs about the traffic hitting the rules can be found in the file /var/log/apache2/modsec_audit.log.
Fixing false positives
First of all, in order to minimize the amount of false positives, you should set the WEBAPPID variable if you are using one of the known web applications for which the Core Rule Set has a default exclusion set. These web applications are currently WordPress, Drupal, Dokuwiki, Nextcloud, Xenforo and cPanel. You can do so by using the <a href="https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity/wiki/Reference-Manual-(v2.x)#SecWebAppId">SecWebAppId</a> option in a VirtualHost of Location definition in the Apache configuration. For example if you have a VirtualHost which is used by Nextcloud, set this within the VirtualHost definition:
If you have multiple WordPress sites, give each of them a unique WEBAPPID which name starts with wordpress. Add a different suffix for every instance so that each one run its in own application namespace in ModSecurity.
If you still encounter false positives, you can completely disable rules by using the configuration directive SecRuleRemoveById. I strongly recommend not disabling rules globally, but limiting its removal to the specific location from which you want them to be removed, for example by putting them with <Location> or <LocationMatch> tags in the Apache configuration. For example:
Pay attention not to disable any of the 949*, 959*, and 980* rules: disabling the 949* and 959* rules would disable all the blocking rules, while disabling the 980* rules would give you less information about what is happening in the logs.
ModSecurity and the Core Rule Set offer an additional security layer for web servers in your defence in depth strategy. I strongly recommend implementing this on your servers because it makes it harder to abuse security vulnerabilities.
Keep an eye on the Core Rule Set blog and Twitter account: sometimes they post new rules for specific new critical vulnerabilities, which can be worthwhile to add to your configuration.
I was experiencing crackling/popping sounds while playing music with Rhythmbox in my Debian GNU/Linux Testing (Bookworm) system. The noises start when starting music playback and stop as soon as I stop the playback.
Speech-dispatcher is used for speech synthesis often used by blind or visually impaired people. If you don’t use this functionality, you can either disable speech-dispatcher (speechd) or completely uninstall it:
Disable speech-dispatcher by editing /etc/speech-dispatcher/speechd.conf, removing the comment sign # before this line near the end of the file:
Then you will have to log out and log in your desktop or you can kill all speech-dispatcher processes manually.
If you want, you can remove speech-dispatcher completely by running this command:
# apt remove speech-dispatcher
Note that this will remove the gnome meta-package, which in itself is harmless, but might lead to new GNOME components not being installed automatically in the future.
This fixed the constant popping crackling noises while playing music completely for me.
I am using Debian Bullseye and already for a long time I noticed that Nautilus failed to generate thumbnails for certain video files, leading to only a generic video icon instead of a thumbnail.
In the kernel log (dmesg), you will see this error:
qtdemux0:sink: segfault at 0 ip 0000000000000000 sp 00007f724fe61d18 error 14 in totem-video-thumbnailer[5638abe9b000+3000]
Code: Unable to access opcode bytes at RIP 0xffffffffffffffd6.
This is Debian bug #967941: gnome-video-thumbnailer crashes with a segmentation fault when thumbnailing H.264 encoded video files when you have the package libopenblas0-pthread installed.
# apt-get remove libopenblas0-pthread
This might not be possible if you need this package for other reasons.
For performance reasons you might also want to install the BLIS BLAS implementation and set it as default. Install the packages libblis3-pthread and libblis64-3-pthread and set them default using the update-alternatives commands from the next work-around.
Switch the default BLAS implementation from OpenBlas to Atlas
If you cannot uninstall libopenblas0-pthread, you can change the default BLAS and LAPACK implementation on your system to a different implementation than OpenBLAS
Choose a different implementation than openblas in all 3 cases. Usually Atlas will be installed and available by default. You can also install the packages libblis3-pthread and libblis64-3-pthread and choose the BLIS implementation for the former two and Atlas for the latter.
Disable the sandbox in totem-video-thumbnailer
Totem-video-thumbnailer uses some kind of sandbox limiting how much CPU and memory resources the process can use. This enhances security and prevents the process from using all resources in case something would go wrong. OpenBLAS causes problems in combination with these restrictions. You can disable them in totem-video-thumbnailer by calling it with the -l option. To automatically let GNOME call it with that option, edit the file /usr/share/thumbnailers/totem.thumbnailer and edit the Exec= line so that it looks like this:
If you can, rather use one of two previous work-arounds, because disabling this restrictions could have security implications.
Regenerating the failed thumbnails
Finally after implementing one of the 3 work-arounds, you will need to regenerate the failed thumbnails. GNOME Thumbnail Factory keeps a list of all failed thumbnails, so that it does not retry to generate them over and over again. They are stored in ~/.cache/thumbnails/fail/gnome-thumbnail-factory so you can just delete this directory:
This can be easily done for all your websites by modifying your Apache configuration. While at it, you should set some other security and privacy related headers, notably:
X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN": this makes sure that browsers will not allow your website to be included in an iframe on another domain.
X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff": This will prevent the browser from trying to automatically detect the file type of a downloaded file instead of using the MIME type sent by the server. This can mitigate attacks where a hacker manages to upload a malicious file by giving it a filename which makes it look like a harmless file type which is then served to your visitors.
Referrer-Policy "no-referrer-when-downgrade": when a visitor clicks on a link, the browser will only send the referrer when it’s not going from a HTTPS to a HTTP connection. This is fine if your URLs don’t contain any private information. If they do, then consider using strict-origin-when-cross-origin, so that only your domain name instead of the complete URL is sent as referrer if people click on a link leading to an external website, or even same-origin, which prevents any referrer being sent to external sites. You should probably do this for an internal website, web application or wiki, webmail, etc. More information about Referrer-Policy
To set these in Apache in Debian, create a file /etc/apache2/conf-available/security-headers.conf with these contents:
Header always set X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN"
Header always set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"
Header always set Referrer-Policy "no-referrer-when-downgrade"
Header always set Permissions-Policy: interest-cohort=()
Then make sure the mod_headers module is loaded and this file is enabled by running these commands:
Another important header to set in your SSL virtualhosts is the HSTS header: it ensures that the browser will automatically use HTTPS every time when connecting to the website in the future. Place this in your SSL enabled virtualhost:
Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000"
Then you should also add this to your non-SSL virtualhost to redirect all visitors using HTTP to HTTPS:
Of course make sure mod_rewrite is enabled if that’s not yet the case:
# a2enmod rewrite
# systemctl reload apache2
You can check your server configuration on securityheaders.com. There you can also find more information about the headers Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy, Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy and Cross-Origin-Resource-Policy, some other security related headers. Because they require more changes to your website to implement correctly, I’m not discussing them here.
Now that LineageOS 18.1 is officially out, it’s time to take a look at how it runs on Oneplus 3/3T phones, just like I did for LineageOS 17.1 on Oneplus 3/3T. At this time I am not yet running LineageOS 18.1 myself so the information here is based on what I read in the LineageOS 18.1 on Oneplus 3/3T thread on XDA-developers forum. Because of this, information here can be incomplete and inaccurate. If you encounter any problems, search in the thread on XDA Developers and post a message there if necessary. This page will be updated as more additional information becomes known.
Is it possible to upgrade from LineageOS 17 to 18.1?
Even though this is usually discouraged on XDA and people will often refuse to give you any support if you did not do a clean installation, it is actually possible. The procedure can lead to problems, so make sure you have proper back-ups and know how to use TWRP.
First make a complete back-up of your device using TWRP. I strongly recommend to back up everything, both the system partition files as the system image. While this is both the same, sometimes a restored system only boots successfully with one of them. Definitely also back up data and boot.
After a successful complete backup, connect your phone to your computer, and via the android notification that it’s charging via USB, select that you want to transfer files. Now open your device’s internal storage disk on your computer, and copy the complete backup in TWRP/BACKUPS/ to your computer. I recommend also making a complete back-up of all apps, with an app like OAndBackupX and then copying this back-up to your PC. While connected to your PC, also make a back-up of your photos in the DCIM directory, because these are not included in backups made with TWRP and OAndBackupX.
Download the following files, either using a browser in Android, either using your computer and in that case copy them to your phone’s internal storage.
Now go to TWRP and install Magisk Unnstaller zip. Then choose Wipe – Advanced wipe, and wipe system, boot, cache and dalvik (don’t wipe data or storage: you will loose all data on your phone if you do so). Then go to Install – Install image, and choose the twrp image. Choose recovery and let it flash TWRP. Then reboot your phone back into the new recovery. Then flash LineageOS 18.1 via Install, then wipe cache and dalvik cache, and reboot. If all goes fine, you can boot back in TWRP and flash Magisk.
When you go the Settings in the Play Store app, under Play Protect certification you will see that your device is not certified.
To solve this, flash the latest Magisk zip in TWRP. Then back in Android go to Settings – Apps & Notifications and there go to Play Store App-Info. Go to Storage and there clear the cache and the storage. Now restart your phone. If you go to the Play Store settings, you will see that the message that it is not certified is gone, and you will be able to install Netflix. After clearing the storage, verify that the Play Store settings are OK for you, because these will have been reset.
My bank app refuses to start because the phone is rooted
Flash Magisk in TWRP. Then Start Magisk Manager and tap on SafetyNet Check. It should return Success and a green check mark for both CtsProfile and basicIntegrity. Then in Magisk’s menu go to Settings and make sure Magisk Hide is enabled. Then in the menu go to Magisk Hide and enable it for your bank app and for Google Play Services. If it does not work yet, try to remove data and cache of your bank app and reboot. Then try to reconfigure your account.
Known bugs in LineageOS 18.1 on OnePlus 3/3T
The phone crashes from time to time
Some users are reporting stability problems: they experience random reboots in LineageOS because of a kernel panic, at a frequency of about once a week. Logs posted on XDA point to a kernel oops in ffs_data_clear, which is a function in the USB gadget code.
In LineageOS 16.0 it’s possible to disable one of the SIM cards if you have two SIMs installed. In LineageOS 17.1 and 18.1, the only way to disable a SIM is to physically remove the card from the slot.
If you have an e-mail server, maybe you already are using the open source tools Amavis and ClamAV to detect malicious e-mails. ClamAV’s default virus signatures however, while being useful, still only detect a limited set of malware. Fortunately there exist third-party unofficial signatures which you can use to drastically improve the detection rate so that it becomes similar to the detection rate of commercial anti-virus software. These third-party signatures are a must-have on any mail server using ClamAV.
ClamAV can also be very useful to scan the webroot directories on web servers in order to detect malicious PHP scripts which may be installed on your server after an intrusion in a web application. Several of the third-part ClamAV definitions proposed here, specialize in this kind of malware.
Fangfrisch is a utility which automates downloading third-party ClamAV virus definitions. It has several free repositories containing ClamAV signatures configured by default, but you can also easily add other ones.
Third-party ClamAV virus definitions
SaneSecurity is a set of signatures focusing on so-called 0-day and 0-hour malware, which means that it includes hashes of new malicious files being sent by e-mail. Furthermore it contains signatures for malicious URLs, common spam and phishing messages and generic signatures which detect some commonly types of techniques used in malware, such as exe files with a double extenstion (for example pdf.exe), exe files hidden in ISO files and often abused functions in MS Office macros. Sanesecurity also distributes signatures from other sources, such as phishing URLs from phishtank.com. A complete list of available signature databases can be found on their website.
The French company SecuriteInfo claims that their ClamAV definitions add 4.000.000 signatures for malware and spam not detected by the official ClamAV signatures. There is a free feed of the signatures available, however it only contains signatures older than 30 days. For up-to-date 0-day malware detection, you will need one of the paid plans.
In the MalwareBazaar database you can see that SecuriteInfo is often the only ClamAV definitions database which detects malicious Windows binaries.
MalwarePatrol is a commercial threat intelligence company which offers free and paid feeds, including ClamAV virus signatures which contain URL’s pointing to malware files on the world wide web. The free feed is only updated every 72 hours, while the paid feed is updated every 4 hours. If you need an invoice or want to use the feeds for protecting customers of your company, you will have to use the commercial feeds.
Quickly after integrating the free feed in my Amavis installation, I noticed it was wrongly blocking legitimate mails with links to arxiv.org/pdf, which is used a lot in academic environments. So be careful when you integrate this feed. For this reason you should not automatically block all messages marked by Malwarepatrol. With Amavis you can give them them a positive spam score. In combination with the score from the Bayes spam filter, legitimate mails will not be blocked.
MalwareExpert offers a commercial, paid feed of signatures which detect malicious PHP files, meant for scanning your web servers.
URLHaus is a project from abuse.ch collecting URLs of sites distributing malware. They offer a ClamAV signature database of all these malicious URLs so that you can block all e-mail containing links to sites distributing malware. This database can be used for free, both for commercial and non-commercial purposes.
Clam-punch is described as a “highly curated set of signatures for ClamAV”. It seems to focus mainly on malicious macros in MS Office documents. They do not seem to be updated regularly any more, however as the signatures appear to be rather generic, they can probably still be useful.
TwinWave Security Twinclams
Twinclams is a Github repository by TwinWave Security and contains signatures for malicious MS Office documents. The author of twinclams appears to be a contributor of Clam-punch. This ClamAV virus database is getting updated daily and appears to be highly effective in detecting newly found Office documents with malicious macros. Recent malicious Office document in the MalwareBazaar database are almost always detected by the Twinclams definitions, sometimes even detecting files which are not detected yet by commercial anti-virus software.
R-FX Networks Linux Malware Detect
Part of its Linux Malware Detect (LMD) tool, R-FX Networks offers a set of ClamAV signatures specializing in detecting Linux specific malware, including malicious PHP scripts, trojan horses such as malicious IRC bots, worms, etc.
Another set of ClamAV signatures focused on malicious PHP scripts is maintained by the hosting provider InterServer. I highly recommend this feed if you want to scan your web servers.
Unfortunately Debian does not have a package for Fangfrisch, so you need to install it manually. In contrast to the documentation, I prefer to install fangfrisch in /opt though, using /var/lib/fangfrisch only for the database, and saving the signatures in /var/lib/fangfrisch/signatures, so that we can check them later on before letting ClamAV use them.
Checking the new signatures before letting ClamAV use them
In the configuration file above, I call the script setup-clamav-sigs whenever signatures were updated. This script will check whether the downloaded files are really different than the signatures in /var/lib/clamav, and if they are, check them to ensure they don’t contain errors preventing ClamAV to load them. If ClamAV can successfully load them, it will copy them to /var/lib/clamav and restart clamdscan if it’s loaded. Download the script from the GitLab repository, place it in /usr/local/bin and make sure it’s executable.
When you have set up Fangfrisch, you have to initialize it by executing
These settings ensure that not only the different parts and attachments will be separately scanned by ClamAV, but also the mail as a whole. Then we will reduce some ClamAV virus detections from infected to a spam score in Spamassassin. I do this on rules which could be more likely causing false positives. You can adapt the score to your own situation.
Automatically running Fangfrisch using a systemd timer
Create the file /etc/systemd/system/fangfrisch.service:
It is possible that you hit false positives with certain definitions. If you want to completely disable a specific virus definition, you can add its name to a text file with the ign2 extension in /var/lib/clamav/. For example for me the Sanesecurity.Badmacro.Doc.hypers caused a false positive for me, so I created the file /var/lib/clamav/local_whitelist.ign2 with content:
To reload the database after changing the database, run
# sudo -u clamav clamdscan – reload
With free third-party databases (Sanesecurity, URLHaus, Clam-punch, Twinclams, R-FX MLD, Interserver and ditekShen) it is possible to drastically improve the detection rate of ClamAV so that it becomes an excellent virus scanner for e-mail and web servers at least if you use it In combination with Amavis’ configuration to block malicious file types (such as exe, com, vbs, dll, pif, etc.) and a well configured and trained Spamassassin. If you want the best protection, add a subscription to the SecuriteInfo feeds.
The most widely used distribution is Ubuntu. Other popular desktop distributions are Linux Mint, Fedora, OpenSUSE Tumbleweed and Manjaro. Personally I prefer to use Debian, not only on servers but also on desktop systems, but this distribution does require more manual work to set up on a desktop system, so it is not the easiest choice if you are new to Linux. In that case I would recommend some of the Ubuntu variants or Linux Mint.
Choose a recent version of your Linux distribution of choice. If you use Ubuntu, install the latest LTS version (20.04 Focal Fossa at the time of writing) and if you encounter problems related to hardware support, consider using the latest non-LTS version (20.10 Groovy Gorilla will be available end of October 2020. You can download daily builds if you want to test this version in development). I recommend Debian users to install the testing version on recent hardware.
Which desktop environment?
You will have to choose which desktop environment you want to use on your Linux system. Depending on your distribution, you make this choice before downloading the ISO, or during the installation.
The most widely used desktop environments are GNOME, KDE Plasma, Cinnamon and XFCE. The first three desktop environments get updates and improvements more often than XFCE and are more complete: for this reason I would recommend one of these. XFCE on the other hand is interesting as a lightweight desktop for older hardware.
KDE is very customizable, but the many configuration options can be overwhelming at times. GNOME is less customizable and tries to deliver a user-friendly modern desktop out of the box. If you want a simple clean desktop with a more traditional, Windows- or macOS-like desktop, then you can consider Cinnamon.
In the next table you will find links to the different editions of popular distributions. Some distributions have a default or preferred desktop, one in which they invest most work. I have set these in bold.
If you like KDE Plasma, you can also consider installing the KDE Neon distribution. It is an Ubuntu LTS with the latest KDE packages installed. This way it provides a more up to date and more standard KDE experience than Kubuntu. However it misses a lot of standard non-KDE application, which you will have to install yourself afterwards.
If you want to get a feeling of these distributions and desktops, you can test them out in a web browser on the website distrotest.net. All in all, I would recommend not spending too much time on choosing your distribution and desktop. Pick one of the beginner-friendly distributions and try it. If you really don’t like it, it is easy enough to install another distribution.